Point summary

Parliament and MPR [PDF 2.73Mb, 18 pages]

Australia and Indonesia have unique and rich histories, with similarities and differences in their political systems.

One of the most important differences between the two nations is that Australia is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen as head of state and Indonesia is a republic with the President as head of state. The President of Indonesia is also the head of the government.

Because the Indonesian President is both the head of the Indonesian government and head of state they both propose and negotiate bills (through the executive) and sign them into law.

In Australia the Governor-General (representing the Queen) signs bills into law but takes no part in negotiating their passage through Parliament.

There are also several similarities between the systems of the two countries. Both have political systems with highly structured legislatures. The executive governments of Australia and Indonesia both lead their nation as well as representing them on the world stage. Australia and Indonesia both have independent judiciaries to interpret the law. All of these elements are detailed in written constitutions.

Constitutional monarchy Yes No
Republic No Yes
President No Yes
Prime Minister Yes No
Executive Government leading the nation Yes Yes
Bicameral legislature Yes No*
Federation Yes No
Written constitution Yes Yes
Democratic elections Yes Yes
Independent judiciary Yes Yes
Two major parties Yes No
Committee system Yes Yes
Compulsory voting Yes No

* Although the Indonesian parliament does have two chambers, the DPD does not vote on bills. Therefore, only one chamber is part of the law-making process.

Information is correct as at time of publication