Point summary

Closer Look – Parliament of Australia and US Congress [PDF 1.89Mb, 16 pages]

Australia and the US have unique and rich histories, with similarities and differences inherent in their political systems.

One of the most important differences between the two nations is that Australia is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen as head of state and the US is a republic with the President as head of state.

There are also several similarities. Both nations have political systems with highly structured legislatures – Parliament and Congress. The executive governments of Australia and the US both lead their nation as well as representing them on the world stage. Australia and the US both have independent judiciaries to deliver justice. All of these elements are detailed in written constitutions that guide each nation.

Both nations enjoy the benefits of stable, organised and accountable government through the design and application of their political systems.

  AustraliaUnited States
Constitutional monarchy Yes No
Republic No Yes
President No Yes
Prime Minister Yes No
Executive Government leading the nation Yes Yes
Bicameral legislature
House of Representatives & Senate
Yes Yes
Federation Yes Yes
Written constitution Yes Yes
Bill of Rights No Yes
Democratic elections Yes Yes
Independent judiciary Yes Yes
Two major parties Yes Yes
Committee system Yes Yes
Compulsory voting Yes No


Information correct at time of publishing